STD Table: Names & Effects

Disease
Possible Symptoms & Risks
Risks During Pregnancy
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • 14,000,000 new cases per year
  • Extremely contagious
  • Both Men and Women: Itching, burning, bleeding in the genital area; soft warts on the genitals, anus, or urethra (very contagious genital-genital, oral-genital, genital-anal); can lead to genital cancer in men and women (especially cervical cancer in women)
  • Baby: Warts in birth canal can cause complications during delivery, warts can develop in baby’s throat which requires surgery
Chlamydia
  • 2,860,000 new cases per year
  • Often no symptoms, so treatment is delayed
  • Both Men and Women: Painful intercourse, discharge from penis or vagina, painful urination, rectal bleeding
  • Women: Abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, swelling or tenderness of vulva
  • Mother: If untreated, 40% develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, which increases the risk of infertility or ectopic pregnancies in the future
  • Baby: Pneumonia, eye infections and blindness
Herpes
  • 776,000 new cases per year(1 in 6 over age 14)
  • Both Men and Women: Muscle aches, fever, swollen glands, chills, fatigue, nausea, painful urination, painful sores or small fluid filled blisters that are clustered (can appear anywhere on body; usually genital or oral)Once infected, people remain infected for life.
  • Mother: Severe outbreak in 1st trimester can result in a miscarriage; need for C-section if lesions present at term
  • Baby: Fetus is at a higher risk if herpes is contracted during pregnancy, can lead to neonatal herpes (which has 60% mortality if left untreated)
Hepatitis B
  • Mortality: 5,000 people per year
  • Often no symptoms
  • Both Men and Women: Fatigue, headaches, fever, hives, muscle and joint aches, loss of appetite, jaundice, nausea, stomach aches, liver disease or damage
  • Mother: Can cause significant damage to the liver
  • Baby: Unless treated within 12 hours of birth, 90% of babies will be a carrier for life
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • 50,000 new cases per year
  • 1.1 million infected in the US
  • About 16% don’t know they’re infected
  • Both Men and Women: Rapid weight loss, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fevers, chills, cough, fatigue, headaches, whitish coating in the mouth (thrush), purplish growths on body, severe yeast infections; can lead to AIDS, which is fatal
  • Mother and Baby: Can lead to AIDS, which is fatal
Trichomoniasis
  • 3.7 million people infected in US
  • Only 30% have symptoms, so many don’t know
  • Both Men and Women: Odd smelling discharge, painful urination
  • Women: Itching and swelling of the genital, blood spotting, urge to urinate frequently
  • Mother: Can cause Fallopian tube damage
  • Baby: Premature birth, low birth weight
Gonorrhea
  • 820,000 new cases per year
  • Only about 50% detected
  • Both Men and Women: Painful urination, discharge from penis or vagina, can lead to infertility
  • Women: Painful sex, pelvic pain, tender genital area
  • Mother: Can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, which increases the risk of infertility or ectopic pregnancies in the future
  • Baby: Premature birth, stillbirth, eye infections
Syphilis
  • 55,400 new cases per year
  • Both Men and Women:
    • Stage 1 – canker sore on the genitals
    • Stage 2 – body rashes, fever, sore throat, weight loss, hair loss, headaches
    • Stage 3 – loss of muscle control, serious damage to nervous system; heart, eye, hearing abnormalities
  • Mother: MiscarriageBaby: Stillbirth, congenital syphilis (can result in mental and physical problems)
Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Women: Irritation in the vagina, heavy discharge that may have a fishy odor and be grayish in color
  • Mother: Increased risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Baby: Premature birth, low birth weight

 

Prevention Facts 

  • Effective methods of prevention of STDs:
    • Sexual purity, including oral & anal sex
    • Delay onset of sexual activity
    • Reduce number of partners
  • Condoms cannot be guaranteed to prevent some STDs, including HPV, Herpes, Gonorrhea (for women), and Chlamydia.
  • Many carriers of STDs do not have symptoms but can transmit the disease.
  • Many STDs increase the risk of contracting HIV.
  • There is a vaccine available for HPV for both men and women between the ages of 9 and 26.
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